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Citation Family History
Cessna Citation is a marketing name used by Cessna for its lines of business
jets. Rather than one particular model of aircraft, the name applies to several
"families" of turbofan-powered aircraft which have been produced over
the years. Within each of the six distinct families, aircraft design
improvements, market pressures and re-branding efforts have resulted in a number
of variants, so that the Citation lineage has become quite complex.
We are proud that we had sold Mr. Milt Sills-the engineer and chief designer of the 500 series and the Citation X, his personal aircraft. He is sorely missed
product line lineage overview
the prototype for the original Citation family, first flew 1969-09-15.
(Model 500) originally called the Citation 500 before Cessna finally
settled on Citation I, by which time the design had changed quite a bit from the
FanJet 500. The original Citation I was one of the first light corporate jets to
be powered by turbofan engines. Production ceased in 1985.
(Model 501) single-pilot operations
(Model 550) a larger stretched development of the Model 500. Initially replaced
by the S/II in production, but was brought back and produced side-by-side with
the S/II until the Bravo was introduced.
(Model 551) single-pilot operations
(Model S550) incorporated a number of improvements, especially an improved wing.
Replaced the II in production.
(Model 550) updated II and S/II with new PW530A engines, landing gear and Primus
(Model 560), growth variant of the Citation II/SP JT15D5A
(Model 560) upgraded with JT15D5D, EFIS instruments
V Ultra Encore
(Model 560) upgraded with PW535A engines and improved trailing-link landing gear
(Model 560) includes FADEC (Full Authority Digital Engine Control) and a
(Model 650) all-new design.
(Model 650) was a low-cost derivative of the III which had a different avionics
suite and non-custom interior design.
(Model 650) is an upgrade of the III, Single Point Refueling
(Model 750) (X as in the Roman numeral for ten), an all-new
design, the fastest civilian aircraft in the world since the retirement of
(Model 560XL), utilized a shortened Citation X fuselage combined with the V
Ultra’s straight wing and the V’s tail; used new PW545A engines.
evolved from the Excel
which includes FADEC (Full Authority Digital Engine Control) and a redesigned
(Model 680), utilizes a stretched version of the Excel’s fuselage with an
(Model 525) essentially an all-new design, the only carry-over being the
Citation I’s forward fuselage.
(Model 525) Improved version of the CitationJet
(Model 525) Improved version of the CJ1 with new engines
(Model 525A) Stretched version of the CitationJet
(Model 525A) Improved version of the CJ2 with increased performance.
(Model 525B) Increase in size and performance
Re-engined with Williams FJ44 -4, and a swept wing.
(Model 510), a new Very Light Jet (VLJ), even smaller and lighter than the
CitationJet I meant to compete with the new breed of VLJs from Embraer, Eclipse
Aviation, and Adam Aircraft Industries.
- The project was announced at the annual NBAA convention in October, 2011. It
was launched as a larger aircraft than the Cessna Citation XLS+ and cheaper than
the Cessna Citation Sovereign. The aircraft will seat 9, and feature twin Pratt
& Whitney Canada PW306D turbofan engines. Like other Citations, the Citation
Latitude will feature a cruciform tail and all metal fuselage.
- The project was announced in May 2012. It was perceived as the follow-on
development to the now-canceled Citation Columbus. Its fuselage
cross-section (83.25 inch circular section) is from the Citation Latitude.
Cessna projected that first delivery would occur in late 2017. The aircraft will
have a T-tail empennage, area-rule fuselage contouring, and 30° wing sweep. The
engines will be the new Snecma Silvercrest turbofan, rated at 11,000 lb
thrust for takeoff. The wings will incorporate moderate winglets. Construction
will be aluminum for both wing and fuselage.
Citation name also frequently applies to the original straight-wing family of
jets, each of which has evolved from the first Citation I.
October, 1968, Cessna announced plans to build an eight-place business jet that,
unlike its competition, would be suitable for operations from shorter airfields,
essentially aiming to compete in the light-to-medium twin turboprop market,
rather than the existing business jet market. First flight of the prototype
aircraft, then called the FanJet 500, took place a little under a year later, on
September 15, 1969 in aviation.
a longer-than-expected development flight test program, during which the name
Citation 500 was tried, and a number of changes to the design, the finished
aircraft was debuted with the new name Citation (Model 500) and received its FAA
certification in September, 1971. The aircraft was powered by two Pratt &
Whitney Canada JT15D-1 turbofan engines. With fan engines, rather than turbojet
engines such as powered the contemporary Learjet 25, and a straight, rather than
swept wings, the Citation was over 120 knots slower than the Lear 25 (max speed
of 350 kts compared with 473 kts for the LJ25), which led to nicknames such as
"Slowtation" and "Nearjet", and raised eyebrows in the
1976, several product improvements were added to the aircraft in response to
market pressures, including a higher max gross weight and thrust reversers,
which made shorter landing fields available to customers. With these
improvements came the name Citation I.
production on the Citation I finally ended in 1985, 377 airframes had been
built. The aircraft’s position in the Citation product line was not filled
until much later, with the introduction of the Cessna CitationJet.
the Learjets, the Citation I required a crew of two. But since the Citation was
intended to be marketed against twin turboprops, which can be flown by a single
pilot, this restriction limited its intended market. Cessna’s answer was the
Model 501 Citation I/SP, with SP referring to its certified single-pilot
capability. The aircraft was first delivered in early 1977, and a total of 312
aircraft were produced, and production also ended in 1985. New York Yankees
catcher Thurman Munson was killed in his Citation I/SP on August 2, 1979 while
practicing takeoffs and landings.
Citation II, Model 550, was a direct development from the Citation I. The
earlier aircraft’s success in the market led Cessna to believe there was
demand for a larger aircraft that utilized the same design philosophy. The
result was the Citation II, which had a maximum seating capacity of 10. In
addition to more seats, the plane had more powerful JT15D4 engines, faster
speeds and longer range. First flight was on January 31, 1977, and the aircraft
was certified for two-pilot operation in March, 1978. A total of 603 aircraft
were built before the Citation II was replaced by the Bravo in the production
the Citation I/SP, the Model 551 Citation II/SP as Cessna’s means of competing
in the turboprop market, which predominantly are operated single-pilot, so the
aircraft was re-certified for single-pilot operations.
October, 1983, Cessna announced that they would be improving the aircraft, and
the upgraded Model S550 Citation S/II first flew February 14, 1984. The aircraft
utilized an improved version of the engine, JT15D4B, while the rest of the
improvements were aerodynamic in nature. The wing was replaced with one using a
supercritical airfoil, which had been developed for the Citation III. The S/II
was certified, like the II/SP, with a single-pilot exemption. Once certification
was in hand, the S/II replaced the II in the product line in late 1984. However,
due to market demands, the II was returned to production the following year, and
both were produced side-by-side until replaced by the Bravo.
V After stretching the Citation I to make the II, Cessna decided to increase the
size of the cabin again, stretching the fuselage by another 20 inches, resulting
in the largest member of the straight-wing family, the Model 560 Citation V. The
first engineering prototype flew in August, 1987, and certification was granted
in December, 1988. The aircraft utilized the T-47A’s JT15D5A engines for extra
performance. By the time the aircraft was superseded in 1994, 262 had been
Ultra and Encore
1993, Cessna decided to update the design, and announced that the Citation V
Ultra, with the main differences being in the engines, which were the latest
JT15D5D version, and the standard avionics suite, which was updated to the
Honeywell Primus 1000 EFIS glass cockpit. The Primus 1000 replaced the standard
"round dial" flight instruments with three CRT computer screens, one
for each pilot and one center multifunction display.
years later, in 1998, the Model 560 was upgraded again as the Citation Ultra
Encore, or just Encore, this time with Pratt & Whitney Canada PW535A engines
and an increase in fuel capacity (resulting in longer wings). Another product
improvement in December, 2006, brought the type up to the Citation Ultra
Encore+, with the addition of FADEC-controlled PW535B engines.
1994, the Citation II and S/II had been in production for 10 years, and it was
time to integrate new technology. Cessna thus announced the development of the
Citation Bravo. While it was built on the basic S/II airframe, the new aircraft
was powered by Pratt & Whitney Canada PW530A engines. The main landing gear
was replaced by the smoother-riding trailing link configuration adopted by other
members of the Citation line, and the standard avionics suite was updated to the
Honeywell Primus 1000 EFIS glass cockpit. The new aircraft first flew on April
25, 1995, but certification did not come for over a year, finally being granted
in August, 1996.
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Cessna 500 & 501 Citation, Citation I & Citation I/SP at Airliners.net
I info from Aviation Safety Network
I/SP info from Aviation Safety Network
Cessna Citation II & Bravo from Airliners.net
II info from Aviation Safety Network
information from GlobalSecurity.org
II/SP info from Aviation Safety Network
Cessna 560 Citation V, Ultra & Ultra Encore from Airliners.net
V, Ultra and Encore info from Aviation Safety Network
S550 info from Aviation Safety Network
Bravo info from Aviation Safety Network
Citation Bravo Light Business Jet Cessna Citation Bravo Light Business Jet,
Cessna Citation III, VI & VII from Airliners.net
III and VI info from Aviation Safety Network
Citation CJ3 Business Jet Cessna Citation CJ3 Business Jet, USA”, Aerospace-
VII info from Aviation Safety Network
Cessna Citation X from Airliners.net
Cessna 560XL Citation Excel from Airlines.net
Excel info from Aviation Safety Network
Cessna 680 Citation Sovereign from Airliners.net
680 Sovereign info from Aviation Safety Network
Cessna CitationJet, CJ1 & CJ2 from Airliners.net
Citation CJ1+ web site
Cessna Citation CJ1 Receives FAA Type Certification”, Jobwerx News
Citation CJ3 web site
Citation CJ4 web site
Citation Mustang web site
Thurman Munson accident brief
Security.org article on the T-47A
information from GlobalSecurity.org
Encore specifications from Cessna
36. UC-35B information from GlobalSecurity.org
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